Below is a glossary GreenPosting has put together.
FFactory Farm 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A large-scale industrial site where many animals (generally chickens, turkeys, cattle, or pigs) are confined and treated with hormones and antibiotics to maximize growth and prevent disease. The animals produce much more waste than the surrounding land can handle. These operations are associated with various environmental hazards as well as cruelty to animals. The government calls these facilities Concentrated (or Confined) Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines a CAFO as "new and existing operations which stable or confine and feed or maintain for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period more than the number of animals specified" in categories that they list out. In addition, "there's no grass or other vegetation in the confinement area during the normal growing season." (L)Fair Trade (Fairtrade) 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A system of trade in which workers receive living wages and employment opportunities for the goods they produce. This system serves as an alternative approach to conventional international trade for producers who are typically economically disadvantaged artisans and farmers from developing countries. The producers partner with international organizations that help them build their skills to market and sell goods such as crafts, and agricultural products such as coffee and chocolate.
For commodities, farmers receive a stable, minimum price. In addition, there are several other criteria to satisfy:
Forced labor and exploitative child labor are not allowed
Buyers and producers trade under direct long-term relationships
Producers have access to financial and technical assistance
Sustainable production techniques are encouraged
Working conditions are healthy and safe
Equal employment opportunities are provided for all
All aspects of trade and production are open to public accountability
Goods can be certified as Fair Trade by organizations like the Fair Trade Labelling Organization (FLO) which has affiliates in seventeen countries.
International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT)
A fair trade networking agency whose 9 standards apply to all Fair Trade Organizations whether they are importers or retailers, exporters, producer societies or support organizations: www.ifat.org
The only third-party certifier of Fair Trade products in the United States: www.transfairusa.org
Family Farm / Small Farm 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Defined by the USDA as a farm with less than $250,000 gross receipts annually on which day-to-day labor and management is provided by the farmer and/or the farm family that owns the production or owns or leases the productive assets.FDA (Food and Drug Administration) 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Food and Drug Administration. This government agency regulates industries and labels food and related items such as medicines and cosmetics.Feedlots 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Buildings, lots, or a combination of buildings and lots in which animals are confined for feeding, breeding, raising, and/or holding. The concentration of hundreds or thousands of animals in a confined feedlot facility drastically reduces the welfare of these animals, creates health risks, promotes the spread of disease, and yields tremendous quantities of animal waste, which pollutes the natural environment and threatens human health.Finishing 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
The process through which an animal gains weight prior to slaughter. On factory farms, animals are generally finished on a pure grain-based diet, which induces rapid weight gain and creates the "marbled" layers of fat in beef to which consumers are accustomed. However, cows and other ruminants are naturally adapted to eat grasses; large quantities of grain cause them to develop high levels of acidity within their digestive tracts, leading to a number of health problems. Sustainably-raised animals are finished on pasture, where they consume the grasses and other plants that their bodies are best adapted to digest. Research has shown that meat and dairy products from grass-fed animals are better for human health than foods from grain fed animals. Note: Grass-fed, grain-supplemented animals are also raised on pasture, but are given access to controlled amounts of grain during the finishing period and do not encounter the health problems that animals fed a pure grain diet can face.Food Alliance 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Meats labeled "The Food Alliance Approved" were raised on ranches that preserve soil and water quality, and were provided access to fresh air, pasture, and comfortable living quarters, without artificial hormones, rBGH, or unnecessary antibiotics. This claim is verified by third-party inspectors. (www.thefoodalliance.org)Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
This international network promotes responsible management of the worlds forests and sets international standards for responsible forest management. The FSC label provides assurance to the consumer that the wood has been sustainably harvested. Formaldehyde 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Known human carcinogen that is found in some nail polishes. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.Fossil Fuel
non-renewable source of energy like coal, oil, and natural gas. Formed from plants and animals that lived up to 300 million years ago, fossil fuels are found in deposits beneath the earth. The fuels are burned to release the chemical energy that is stored within this resource. Free range 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
This term refers to animals (usually poultry, and the eggs that they produce) that are not confined, meaning that these animals are able to go outdoors to engage in natural behaviors. It does not necessarily mean that the products are cruelty-free or antibiotic-free, or that the animals spend the majority of their time outdoors. The use of the term "free range" is only defined by the USDA for poultry production, and need only mean that the bird has had some access to the outdoors each day, which could be a dirty or concrete feedlot. USDA considers five minutes of open-air access each day to be adequate. Claims are defined by USDA, but are not verified by third party inspectors.