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Greenhood Glossary

Below is a glossary GreenPosting has put together.

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Or, search for a term from the dictionary:

CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) Standards 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The fuel standards for passenger cars and light trucks were established as part of the Energy Policy Conservation Act (EPCA) enacted in 1975. The Act was passed in response to the 1973-74 Arab oil embargo. Though generally opposed by industry, increasing these standards has been advocated by environmentalists as an important step towards decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing U.S. dependence on oil.

CAFO (Confined Animal Feeding Operation) 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
An agricultural business where animals are raised in confined situations and fed an unnatural diet, instead of allowing them to roam and graze. This is an operation that is considered more hazardous than an AFO for one or more reasons, such as the number of animals or the location of the facility, its proximity to surface water and potential to discharge waste into that water. The EPA determines whether an agricultural business is a CAFO based on regulations created by the Clean Water Act, and special permits have to be given for the owners to operate a CAFO legally. Enforcement of these regulations has not been very strict, which has caused many problems.

Cage-Free 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Birds are raised without cages. What this doesn’t explain is if the birds were raised outdoors on pasture, if they had access to outside, or if they were raised indoors in overcrowded conditions. If you are looking to buy eggs, poultry or meat that was raised outdoors, look for a label that says “Pastured” or “Pasture-raised”.

Carbon Footprint 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The total amount of greenhouse gases emitted directly and indirectly to support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of either carbon or carbon dioxide. Carbon footprints are calculated by countries as part of their reporting requirements under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as by companies, regions, or individuals. Direct greenhouse gas emissions can include tailpipe emissions of CO2 from motor vehicles, methane from landfills, and hydrofluorocarbons from leaking refrigeration or air conditioning equipment. Indirect greenhouse gas emissions arise from coal and other fossil fuel-based energy generated to power residential, commercial, and industrial activities. Indirect emissions also arise from fossil fuel combustion used in the manufacture, transport, storage, disposal, and recycling of commodities and manufactured products.

Carbon Trading glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Any trading system designed to offset carbon emissions from one activity (such as burning fossil fuel to create electricity, driving, or flying) with another that is more efficient or less polluting. 

Certified Farmers Market (CFM) glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
These are locations that have been approved by the county agricultural commissioner for farmers to sell agricultural products directly to consumers. 

Chinese Medicine: see Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Chiropractic 4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A system of diagnosis and treatment based on the concept that the nervous system coordinates all of the body's functions, and that disease results from a lack of normal nerve function. Chiropractic employs manipulation and adjustment of body structures, such as the spinal column, so that pressure on nerves coming from the spinal cord due to displacement (subluxation) of a vertebral body may be relieved. Practitioners believe that misalignment and nerve pressure can cause problems not only in the local area, but also at some distance from it. Chiropractic treatment appears to be effective for muscle spasms of the back and neck, tension headaches, and some sorts of leg pain. It may or may not be useful for other ailments.

Chlorine glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A chemical used to disinfect water and as a bleaching agent for many cleaning and paper products. The process of making Chlorine creates an extremely dangerous and damaging bi-product called Dioxin.

Clean Air Act 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Set of laws passed in 1970 to regulate air pollution in the US. The goal of this act was to improve air quality, and it was revised in 1990 to be more detailed about issues such as the hole in the ozone layer and acid rain.

Clean Water Act 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Set of laws passed in 1972 to regulate water pollution in the US. This was the first-ever federal regulation of water pollution, and it gave the EPA the right to set standards and enforce them. The goal of this act was to completely stop the discharge of pollutants into the Waters of the United States and make all bodies of water in the US fishable and swimmable. Making this happen is very difficult and expensive because it's not always easy to find out who is polluting.

Clear Cutting 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A process where all trees in a selected area are felled in a logging operation. Although some areas may be planted, seeded or naturally regenerated, the effect on the environment can be extremely destructive. The act of clear cutting is not only damaging to the structure and function of the forest, but in particularly erosion-prone areas the loss of root structures significantly affects water quality, and leads to the loss and fragmentation of nutrient rich soil, creating a lack of regenerative biomass and reduces primary growth. It is the most devastating and most cost-effective means known to harvest high yields of timber rapidly.

Closed-Loop Supply Chain 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Ideally, a zero-waste supply chain that completely reuses, recycles, or composts all materials. However, the term can also be used to refer to corporate take-back programs, where companies that produce a good are also responsible for its disposal.

Coal Tar glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Known human carcinogen found in beauty products, including hair products and anti-itch creams. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

Cogeneration 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The simultaneous production of electrical and thermal energy from the same fuel source. For example, surplus heat from an electric generating plant can be used for industrial processes, or space and water heating purposes. Or, waste heat from an industrial process can be used to power an electric generator.

Cradle-To-Cradle 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A phrase invented by Walter R. Stahel in the 1970s and popularized by William McDonough and Michael Braungart in their 2002 book of the same name. This framework seeks to create production techniques that are not just efficient but are essentially waste free. In cradle to cradle production all material inputs and outputs are seen either as technical or biological nutrients. Technical nutrients can be recycled or reused with no loss of quality and biological nutrients composted or consumed. By contrast cradle to grave refers to a company taking responsibility for the disposal of goods it has produced, but not necessarily putting products’ constituent components back into service.

CSA (Community Supported Agriculture) 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A system in which consumers support a local farm by paying in advance for agricultural products. This reduces the financial risks for the farmer because the costs of seeds and planting crops are covered in advance by consumers. Throughout the growing season, CSA members receive a portion of the farm's harvest each week. Members share the financial risks and the bounty of the harvest -- if it is a successful growing season, they receive a lot of food; if there are fewer crops, they receive less. Members are also encouraged to visit the farm and some even volunteer there.

CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A business outlook that acknowledges responsibilities to stakeholders not traditionally accepted, including suppliers, customers, and employees as well as local and international communities in which it operates and the natural environment. There are few accepted standards and practices so far, but a growing concern that the actions organizations take have no unintended consequences outside the business, whether driven by concern, philanthropy, or a desire for an authentic brand and public relations.

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