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Greenhood Glossary

Below is a glossary GreenPosting has put together.

All · A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 

Or, search for a term from the dictionary:
A

Accountability 1000S 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Accountability is a not-for-profit certification and research organization founded in the UK in 1995. The 1000 Series is AccounAbility’s guidelines for reporting on social, environmental and ethical performance.
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Acupuncture 4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
The practice of inserting needles into the body to reduce pain or induce anesthesia . More broadly, acupuncture is a family of procedures involving the stimulation of anatomical locations on or in the skin by a variety of techniques. There are a number of different approaches to diagnosis and treatment in American acupuncture that incorporate medical traditions from China, Japan, Korea, and other countries. The most thoroughly studied mechanism of stimulation of acupuncture points employs penetration of the skin by thin, solid, metallic needles, which are manipulated manually or by electrical stimulation.

AFO 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Abbreviation for Animal Feeding Operation, which is an agricultural business where animals are raised in confined situations and fed an unnatural diet, instead of allowing them to roam and graze. The EPA replica watches determines whether an agricultural business is an AFO based on regulations created by the Clean Water Act.

Alternative Energy 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Energy derived from sources such as solar, hydro or wind.

Alternative Medicine 4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
Practices used instead of standard medical treatments. Alternative medicine is distinct from complementary medicine which is meant to accompany, not to replace, standard medical practices. Alternative medical practices are generally not recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches.

Apathetics 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A sector of the market defined by the Roper ASW Green Gauge Report as the least interested in "green" or environmental issues and the least likely to take any action on these issues. In 2007, this group was renamed from "Basic Browns" to "Apatheics" and its numbers fell from 19% to 18% in two years. They tend to be less educated, have lover incomes, and lower influence than other consumers.

Aromatherapy 4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A form of alternative medicine based on the use of very concentrated "essential" oils from the flowers, leaves, bark, branches, rind or roots of plants with purported healing properties.

Ayurveda 4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
India's traditional, natural system of medicine that has been practiced for more than 5,000 years. Ayurveda provides an integrated approach to preventing and treating illness through lifestyle interventions and natural therapies. Ayurvedic theory states that all disease begins with an imbalance or stress in the individual's consciousness. Lifestyle interventions are a major ayurvedic preventive and therapeutic approach. There are ten ayurveda clinics in North America, including one hospital-based clinic that has served 25,000 patients since 1985.

B

Basic Browns 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A selection of consumers defined by the Roper ASW Green Gauge Report as the least interested in "green" or environmental issues. These customers have lower incomes, and believe that their disinterest is common.Replica Handbags UK cheap uggs replica watches replica watches uk

Beyond Organic 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
When the US government officially approved standards for organic food, a number of farmers dropped their organic certification because they felt the organic label had been co-opted by big business, and there was a burdensome amount of paperwork that they could not keep up with. Many of these farmers raise their animals and crops using methods that are even stricter than the USDA organic standards. There has been an effort to categorize these farmers, so some people are now calling these types of farms “Beyond Organic”.

Bio-Based Material 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
"Bio-“ is Greek for life.Bio-based material refers to a products main constituent consisting of a substance, or substances, originally derived from living organisms. These substances may be natural or synthesized organic compounds that exist in nature. This definition could include natural materials such as leather and wood, but typically refers to modern materials. Many of the modern innovations use bio-based materials to create products that biodegrade. Some examples are: cornstarch, derived from a grain and now being used in the creation of packaging pellets; bio-plastics created with soybean oil, now being used in the creation of many modern products like tractors, water bottles, and take away cutlery.

Biodiesel, Biofuel 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
An alternative fuel derived from biological sources, biodiesel usually comes from recycled or virgin vegetable oils. Biodiesel is cleaner for the air than petrol diesel and releases less carbon monoxide, aromatic hydrocarbons, and particreplica watches uk ugg outlet Replica Handbags UK replica watches

Biodiversity 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The biological diversity of life on Earth. As human influence spreads, there is concern over the reduction of the total number of species and its effect on economics, medicine, and the ability of ecosystems to remain viable. Some measures of biodiversity loss are the WEO Wilson (Harvard University) and Peter Raven (Missouri Botanical Gardens) are key leaders in tracking and understanding the value of biodiversity.replica watches

Biodynamic Farming 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
The use of basic organic practices but adding special plant, animal, and mineral preparations to the land and using the rhythm of the sun, moon, planets, and stars to create a healthy, self-supporting, farming eco-system.

Biomass 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Organic, non-fossil material that is available on a renewable basis. Biomass includes all biological organisms, dead or alive, and their metabolic by products, that have not been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum. Examples of biomass are forest and mill residues, agricultural crops and wastes, wood and wood wastes, animal wastes, livestock operation residues, aquatic plants, and municipal and industrial wastes.

Biomimicry 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Applying lessons learned from the study of natural methods and systems to the design of technology. Science writer Janine Benyus articulates nine principles in her 1997 book Biomimicry: 1. Nature runs on sunlight
 2. Nature uses only the energy it needs
 3. Nature fits form to function
 4. Nature recycles everything
 5. Nature rewards cooperation
 6. Nature banks on diversity
 rolex replica watches cheap ugg boots replica watches uk replica watches 7. Nature demands local expertise
 8. Nature curbs excesses from within
 9. Nature taps the power of limits

Broiler 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A chicken raised for its meat. Typically weighs between 3.5 and 6 pounds.

Brown Power 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Electricity generated from the combustion of fossil fuels, which generates significant amounts of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Brown power sources include coal, oil, and natural gas. Also, called Brown Energy.

C

CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) Standards 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The fuel standards for passenger cars and light trucks were established as part of the Energy Policy Conservation Act (EPCA) enacted in 1975. The Act was passed in response to the 1973-74 Arab oil embargo. Though generally opposed by industry, increasing these standards has been advocated by environmentalists as an important step towards decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing U.S. dependence on oil.

CAFO (Confined Animal Feeding Operation) 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
An agricultural business where animals are raised in confined situations and fed an unnatural diet, instead of allowing them to roam and graze. This is an operation that is considered more hazardous than an AFO for one or more reasons, such as the number of animals or the location of the facility, its proximity to surface water and potential to discharge waste into that water. The EPA determines whether an agricultural business is a CAFO based on regulations created by the Clean Water Act, and special permits have to be given for the owners to operate a CAFO legally. Enforcement of these regulations has not been very strict, which has caused many problems.

Cage-Free 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Birds are raised without cages. What this doesn’t explain is if the birds were raised outdoors on pasture, if they had access to outside, or if they were raised indoors in overcrowded conditions. If you are looking to buy eggs, poultry or meat that was raised outdoors, look for a label that says “Pastured” or “Pasture-raised”.replica watches

Carbon Footprint 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The total amount of greenhouse gases emitted directly and indirectly to support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of either carbon or carbon dioxide. Carbon footprints are calculated by countries as part of their reporting requirements under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as by companies, regions, or individuals. Direct greenhouse gas emissions can include tailpipe emissions of CO2 from motor vehicles, methane from landfills, and hydrofluorocarbons from leaking refrigeration or air conditioning equipment. Indirect greenhouse gas emissions arise from coal and other fossil fuel-based replica watches replica watches uggs outlet replica watches energy generated to power residential, commercial, and industrial activities. Indirect emissions also arise from fossil fuel combustion used in the manufacture, transport, storage, disposal, and recycling of commodities and manufactured products.

Carbon Trading 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Any trading system designed to offset carbon emissions from one activity (such as burning fossil fuel to create electricity, driving, or flying) with another that is more efficient or less polluting. 



Certified Farmers Market (CFM) 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
These are locations that have been approved by the county agricultural commissioner for farmers to sell agricultural products directly to consumers. 



Chinese Medicine: see Traditional Chinese Medicine.


Chiropractic 4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A system of diagnosis and treatment based on the concept that the nervous system coordinates all of the body's functions, and that disease results from a lack of normal nerve function. Chiropractic employs manipulation and adjustment of body structures, such as the spinal column, so that pressure on nerves coming from the spinal cord due to displacement (subluxation) of a vertebral body may be relieved. Practitioners believe that misalignment and nerve pressure can cause problems not only in the local area, but also at some distance from it. Chiropractic treatment appears to be effective for muscle spasms of the back and neck, tension headaches, and some sorts of leg pain. It may or may not be useful for other ailments.

Chlorine 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A chemical used to disinfect water and as a bleaching agent for many cleaning and paper products. The process of making Chlorine creates an extremely dangerous and damaging bi-product called Dioxin.

Clean Air Act 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Set of laws passed in 1970 to regulate air pollution in the US. The goal of this act was to improve air quality, and it was revised in 1990 to be more detailed about issues such as the hole in the ozone layer and acid rain.replica watches replica watches replica watches replica watches

Clean Water Act 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Set of laws passed in 1972 to regulate water pollution in the US. This was the first-ever federal regulation of water pollution, and it gave the EPA the right to set standards and enforce them. The goal of this act was to completely stop the discharge of pollutants into the Waters of the United States and make all bodies of water in the US fishable and swimmable. Making this happen is very difficult and expensive because it's not always easy to find out who is polluting. replica watches

Clear Cutting 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A process where all trees in a selected area are felled in a logging operation. Although some areas may be planted, seeded or naturally regenerated, the effect on the environment can be extremely destructive. The act of clear cutting is not only damaging to the structure and function of the forest, but in particularly erosion-prone areas the loss of root structures significantly affects water quality, and leads to the loss and fragmentation of nutrient rich soil, creating a lack of regenerative biomass and reduces primary growth. It is the most devastating and most cost-effective means known to harvest high yields of timber rapidly.

Closed-Loop Supply Chain 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Ideally, a zero-waste supply chain that completely reuses, recycles, or composts all materials. However, the term can also be used to refer to corporate take-back programs, where companies that produce a good are also responsible for its disposal.replica watches replica watches replica watches replica watches

Coal Tar 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Known human carcinogen found in beauty products, including hair products and anti-itch creams. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

Cogeneration 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The simultaneous production of electrical and thermal energy from the same fuel source. For example, surplus heat from an electric generating plant can be used for industrial processes, or space and water heating purposes. Or, waste heat from an industrial process can be used to power an electric generator.replica watches replica watches replica watches replica watches

Cradle-To-Cradle 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A phrase invented by Walter R. Stahel in the 1970s and popularized by William McDonough and Michael Braungart in their 2002 book of the same name. This framework seeks to create production techniques that are not just efficient but are essentially waste free. In cradle to cradle production all material inputs and outputs are seen either as technical or biological nutrients. Technical nutrients can be recycled or reused with no loss of quality and biological nutrients composted or consumed. By contrast cradle to grave refers to a company taking responsibility for the disposal of goods it has produced, but not necessarily putting products’ constituent components back into service.

CSA (Community Supported Agriculture) 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A system in which consumers support a local farm by paying in advance for agricultural products. This reduces the financial risks for the farmer because the costs of seeds and planting crops are covered in advance by consumers. Throughout the growing season, CSA members receive a portion of the farm's harvest each week. Members share the financial risks and the bounty of the harvest -- if it is a successful growing season, they receive a lot of food; if there are fewer crops, they receive less. Members are also encouraged to visit the farm and some even volunteer there.

CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A business outlook that acknowledges responsibilities to stakeholders not traditionally accepted, including suppliers, customers, and employees as well as local and international communities in which it operates and the natural environment. There are few accepted standards and practices so far, but a growing concern that the actions organizations take have no unintended consequences outside the business, whether driven by concern, philanthropy, or a desire for an authentic brand and public relations.

D

Debt Swap 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Also referred to as a debt-for-nature swap, debt swap involves purchasing a portion of a nation’s public debt at a discount, and converting the debt into local currency to be used to finance local conservation activities, such as preserving land. This process traditionally occurs between a developing nation with large debt replica watches replica watches replica watches replica watches and one or more of its creditors, and is facilitated by international conservation organizations.

Dematerialization 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Reducing the total material that goes toward providing benefits to customers. May be accomplished through greater efficiency, the use of better or more appropriate materials, or by creating a service that produces the same benefit as a product.

Dibutyl Phthalate 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Toxin found in some nail polish, perfume, and hair spray. Studies show it is linked to possible reproductive and developmental issues. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

Dioxins 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A man-made pollutant with an array of health risks in humans. Potent toxics, they act as endocrine disruptors (interfering with the body's natural hormone signals), damage the immune system, and may affect reproduction and childhood development. Dioxins are "persistent" compounds which drift around the world, and then tend to accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and humans. 95% of typical human exposure comes through dietary intake of animal fats such as meat, dairy and eggs.

Dow Jones Sustainability Index 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Created in 1999, the Dow Jones Sustainability Index is one of the first global indexes watching the financial performance leading companies with an emphasis on sustainability in economic, social, and environmental capacities. The DJSIs emphasize long-term corporate performance and positive risk/returns. The DJSIs are audited using a special framework from the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB), called ISAE 3000, designed for assurance engagements other than auditing of historical financial information, for example,: • Environmental, social and sustainability reports
 • Information systems, internal control, and corporate governance processes
 • Compliance with grant conditions, contracts and regulations. http://www.sustainability-indexes.com/

Downcycle 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Most recycled industrial nutrients (materials) lose viability or value in the process of recycling. This means they can only be used in a degraded form for components other than their original use. White writing paper, for example, is often downcycled into materials such as cardboard and cannot be used to create more premium writing paper.

E

E-Waste  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Waste materials generated from using or discarding electronic devices (such as computers, televisions, and mobile phones). E-waste tends to be highly toxic to humans, plants, and animals and contaminate water, air (often when burned), and dirt (where dumped or spilled). E-waste is a particular problem since technological devices are superceded so quickly, causing them to be thrown-out more quickly than many other product. Few of these devices are upgradeable, easily reusable, or easily separated for recycling of components or industrial nutrients.

E. coli 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A species of bacteria that lives in the intestines of people and other vertebrates (animals with spines). Although the bacteria that naturally exist in your intestines are harmless and helpful in digestion, eating or drinking E. coli that comes from outside, such as in polluted water or meat that has not been processed safely, can cause severe food poisoning or even death.

Eco-Labels  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Any label that attempts to certify or distinguish a product or service in terms of environmental issues. The ISO 14021-14025 standards outline four different categories of eco-labels: Type I labels are product seals licensed by governments or third party private entities based on multiple criteria regarding lifecycle impact, such as the US-based Green Seal or Sweden's Nordic Swan. Type I seals can vary substantially in their criteria, which may or may not be known or understood by customers. Type II labels are informative, self-declaration seals about the environmental qualities of a product, such as “contains 75% recycled paper.” Type III labels offer quantified product information based on a life cycle assessment. These labels are best for comparisons between products or services. There are few examples of Type III labels in use. One in development is the Reveal label. Type IV labels are single-issue seals licensed by companies or organizations. Examples include: the Leaping Bunny (signifying no animal testing), the Good Housekeeping seal of approval, Underwriter’s Laboratories insignia, and the Forest Stewardship Council seal.

Ecological Footprint  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A term coined by ecologist William Rees and Mathis Wackernage to describe the total ecological impact (the amount of land, food, water, and other resources needed) to sustain a person or organization. This is usually measured in acres or hectares of productive land. It is used to determine relative consumption and is frequently used as an education and resource management tool. When addressing large populations (such as countries), the total productive capacity of the Earth is sometimes used. For example, on average, the population of the USA consumes so many resources that were the rest of the world's population to consume at the same level, several more Earths would be needed to meet the demand.

Ecology  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Derived from the Greek words oikos, and logos meaning “study of home.” Preceding the 1935 introduction of the term "ecosystem" by Sir Arthur Tansley, Vladimir I. Vernadsky used it to define the science of the biosphere. Ecology studies the Earth and its systems, including the interrelationships of all living things and all elements of their environmen. The science was further developed from the work of Ernest Haeckel when investigating ‘the study of living things within their environmental context’.

Ecosystem  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A dynamic and interdependent living community of people, parts, or mechanisms that interact with one another. The term was coined by Arthur Tansley, a British Ecologist, who said that ecosystems have the capacity to respond to change without altering the basic characteristics of the system. A business can be viewed as an ecosystem, as can a market, industry, or economy.

Ecotourism  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Engaging in responsible travel to natural areas while conserving the environment and improving the well-being of local people. Those who lead or participate in ecotourism activities strive to: • Minimize their impact • Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect • Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts • Provide direct financial benefits for conservation • Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people • Raise sensitivity to host countries' political, environmental, and social climate • Support international human rights and labor agreements • Conservation of local, indigenous wildlife and culture

Emissions Trading  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
An approach used by governmental regulatory agencies, private trading systems (such as the CCX), and private companies to reduce air pollution by providing economic incentives to reduce net emissions. Limits or “caps” are set and groups that foresee exceeding these caps may purchase credits from groups that have not the exceeded their emissions levels.

Environment  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A term loosely used to refer to the total of the Earth’s ecosystems. In an even larger sense, it includes not only the natural environment of ecological, biological, and climate conditions (the biosphere), but also the (human) social conditions that support (or not) various forms of life on the Earth. Some schools of thought cast the environmental as “uncontrollable” by individuals, organizations, governments, and societies and, therefore, ignorable. However, human activity affects the environment in many ways and to various degrees, including climate change, biodiversity, and the health and amount of forests, coral reefs, and other ecosystems.

Environmental Justice  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A term referring to inequalities in use and access to environmental resources, such as clean air and water and healthy living conditions. Economic disparities or geographic access often reserve clean and healthy environments for wealthier peoples, giving poorer people less access to clean resources or healthy living conditions. Environmental Justice proponents seek to create more equal access or distribution of resources or halt or lower the impact humans have on environmental services, particularly in areas inhabited by poor or disenfranchised people.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)  2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Environmental Protection Agency. A part of the US federal government that enforces environmental laws and provides information and guidance to policy makers.

Equator Principles  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A financial industry benchmark for determining, assessing, and managing social and environmental risk in project financing.

Ethanol  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A biofuel most commonly derived from the fermentation of corn into alcohol. New methods of transforming straw and other plant wastes into ethanol are making the production process greener.

Ethylacrylate 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Possible human carcinogen found in some mascara. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

F

Factory Farm 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A large-scale industrial site where many animals (generally chickens, turkeys, cattle, or pigs) are confined and treated with hormones and antibiotics to maximize growth and prevent disease. The animals produce much more waste than the surrounding land can handle. These operations are associated with various environmental hazards as well as cruelty to animals. The government calls these facilities Concentrated (or Confined) Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines a CAFO as "new and existing operations which stable or confine and feed or maintain for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period more than the number of animals specified" in categories that they list out. In addition, "there's no grass or other vegetation in the confinement area during the normal growing season." (L)

Fair Trade (Fairtrade)  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A system of trade in which workers receive living wages and employment opportunities for the goods they produce. This system serves as an alternative approach to conventional international trade for producers who are typically economically disadvantaged artisans and farmers from developing countries. The producers partner with international organizations that help them build their skills to market and sell goods such as crafts, and agricultural products such as coffee and chocolate. For commodities, farmers receive a stable, minimum price. In addition, there are several other criteria to satisfy: • Forced labor and exploitative child labor are not allowed
 • Buyers and producers trade under direct long-term relationships
 • Producers have access to financial and technical assistance
 • Sustainable production techniques are encouraged
 • Working conditions are healthy and safe
 • Equal employment opportunities are provided for all
 • All aspects of trade and production are open to public accountability Goods can be certified as Fair Trade by organizations like the Fair Trade Labelling Organization (FLO) which has affiliates in seventeen countries. www.fairtrade.net International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT)
A fair trade networking agency whose 9 standards apply to all Fair Trade Organizations whether they are importers or retailers, exporters, producer societies or support organizations: www.ifat.org Transfair
The only third-party certifier of Fair Trade products in the United States: www.transfairusa.org

Family Farm / Small Farm  2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Defined by the USDA as a farm with less than $250,000 gross receipts annually on which day-to-day labor and management is provided by the farmer and/or the farm family that owns the production or owns or leases the productive assets.

FDA (Food and Drug Administration) 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Food and Drug Administration. This government agency regulates industries and labels food and related items such as medicines and cosmetics.

Feedlots  2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Buildings, lots, or a combination of buildings and lots in which animals are confined for feeding, breeding, raising, and/or holding. The concentration of hundreds or thousands of animals in a confined feedlot facility drastically reduces the welfare of these animals, creates health risks, promotes the spread of disease, and yields tremendous quantities of animal waste, which pollutes the natural environment and threatens human health.

Finishing  2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
The process through which an animal gains weight prior to slaughter. On factory farms, animals are generally finished on a pure grain-based diet, which induces rapid weight gain and creates the "marbled" layers of fat in beef to which consumers are accustomed. However, cows and other ruminants are naturally adapted to eat grasses; large quantities of grain cause them to develop high levels of acidity within their digestive tracts, leading to a number of health problems. Sustainably-raised animals are finished on pasture, where they consume the grasses and other plants that their bodies are best adapted to digest. Research has shown that meat and dairy products from grass-fed animals are better for human health than foods from grain fed animals. Note: Grass-fed, grain-supplemented animals are also raised on pasture, but are given access to controlled amounts of grain during the finishing period and do not encounter the health problems that animals fed a pure grain diet can face.

Food Alliance 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Meats labeled "The Food Alliance Approved" were raised on ranches that preserve soil and water quality, and were provided access to fresh air, pasture, and comfortable living quarters, without artificial hormones, rBGH, or unnecessary antibiotics. This claim is verified by third-party inspectors. (www.thefoodalliance.org)

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
This international network promotes responsible management of the world’s forests and sets international standards for responsible forest management. The FSC label provides assurance to the consumer that the wood has been sustainably harvested.

Formaldehyde  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Known human carcinogen that is found in some nail polishes. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

Fossil Fuel
non-renewable source of energy like coal, oil, and natural gas. Formed from plants and animals that lived up to 300 million years ago, fossil fuels are found in deposits beneath the earth. The fuels are burned to release the chemical energy that is stored within this resource.

Free range 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
This term refers to animals (usually poultry, and the eggs that they produce) that are not confined, meaning that these animals are able to go outdoors to engage in natural behaviors. It does not necessarily mean that the products are cruelty-free or antibiotic-free, or that the animals spend the majority of their time outdoors. The use of the term "free range" is only defined by the USDA for poultry production, and need only mean that the bird has had some access to the outdoors each day, which could be a dirty or concrete feedlot. USDA considers five minutes of open-air access each day to be adequate. Claims are defined by USDA, but are not verified by third party inspectors.

G

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Plants and animals that have had their genetic make-up changed through bioengineering to include traits that are not naturally there. Most commonly found in corn, canola, cotton, and soy. There are no labeling requirements in the United States.

Global Warming 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
An increase in the near surface temperature of the Earth. Global warming has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term is most often used to refer to the warming predicted to occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Scientists generally agree that the Earth's surface has warmed by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past 140 years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently concluded that increased concentrations of greenhouse gases are causing an increase in the Earth's surface temperature and that increased concentrations of sulfate aerosols have led to relative cooling in some regions, generally over and downwind of heavily industrialized areas.

Globalization  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The worldwide integration of products, services, employment, people, cultures, markets, and economies and the compression of both time and distance that often accompanies it. Globalization often refers specifically to the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing cross-border transactions in goods and services, free flow of international capital, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalization is often confused with commercialization, where multination organizations exert global control over markets, workers, and customers. Globalization, in itself, is not necessarily a bad thing. Global interdependence, for example, can be a key ingredient to peaceful understanding and interaction between disparate cultures and communities.

Grain Finished 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Cattle who are fed only grain before slaughter. Some producers raise their animals on pasture but then feed them grain for a certain amount of time before slaughter. Grain makes the meat fattier and creates the taste most people are currently accustomed to.

Grain-Fed 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
The animal was raised on a diet of grain and the grain could be supplemented with animal byproducts and other miscellaneous matter such as cement dust and/or euphonized cats and dogs. Since mad cow disease is thought to be transmitted through animal byproducts added to cattle feed, cows raised on a strictly vegetarian diet are preferred by many consumers. However, unless the label says “100 Percent Vegetarian Diet,” there is no guarantee that the animal’s feed was not supplemented with animal byproducts or is organic. In addition, cattle are ruminants and eat grass; they cannot digest grains properly and can become sick if fed a diet of only grain. Although large-scale, confined grain feedlots enable industrial meat producers to fatten their animals quickly, they also foster disease within the cattle population, creating the need for antibiotics and increasing the risk of E. Coli contamination. Grain-fed animals tend to be raised on factory farms and should be avoided.

Grass Fed/Grain Supplemented 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Animals are raised on pasture and eat grasses. At a certain point, grains are slowly introduced into the diet in a controlled amount, along with the grasses. By controlling the amount of grain, the animals do not become sick and do not develop digestion problems that solely grain-fed cattle can encounter. They are also not forced to eat the grain.

Grass-Fed 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Animals graze on pasture and eat grasses. They should not be supplemented with grain, animal by-products, synthetic hormones, or be given antibiotics to promote growth or prevent disease (though they might be given antibiotics to treat disease). This is the same as pastured or pasture raised.

Grassroots  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A metaphor to describe a movement or change that begins among people with shared interests that they can define and act upon collectively. As a noun it refers to ordinary people in a community or organization. As an adjective it refers to the origin or basis of a principle, idea, or movement.

Green  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A common metaphor referring to environmental association based on the shared secondary color of many plants. It is often used to associate products, organizations, political parties, or policies with environmentally sensitivity.

Green Building  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A comprehensive process of design and construction that employs techniques to minimize adverse environmental impacts and reduce the energy consumption of a building, while contributing to the health and productivity of its occupants. A common metric for green buildings is the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. See www.usgbc.org

Green Design  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The design of products, services, buildings, or experiences that are sensitive to environmental issues and achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in terms of energy and materials.

Green Roof
A system of manufactured layers deliberately placed over roofs to support growing medium and vegetation. Green roofs decrease the total amount of water runoff and slow the rate of runoff from the roof by 75%. They also keep the roof temperature much cooler by up to 44%. Green roofs also provide habitats for plants, insects, and animals that otherwise have limited natural space in cities.

Green-Collar Jobs  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Jobs created by investments and sustainable practices. Many skilled and unskilled jobs traditionally referred to as "blue-collar" jobs may be created and supported through the expansion of incentives and demand for sustainable building and installation of sustainable systems (such as solar panels, "green" remodeling, and gray-water systems) in the residential, commercial, and government markets. These "green-collar" jobs may employ those who are often left-out of the tech boom cycles or do not have the skills, experience, or education to work in "white-collar" jobs. Championed by Van Jones, the founder of the Ella Baker Center for Human Rights in Oakland, California, "green-collar" jobs fill a variety of community and individual needs with rewarding, well-paying work that is sustainable and local (and aren't easily outsourced overseas).

Greenback Greens  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A sector of the market defined by the Roper ASW Green Gauge Report as interested in "green" or environmental issues but not always willing to spend extra to support their ideals. They are still more educated and dedicated than average consumers.

Greenhood
A conscientious man or woman who understands and is committed to the environment and community; belief that, no matter how big or small, action for today’s environment makes for a better world tomorrow.

Greenhouse Effect 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
The effect produced as greenhouse gases allow incoming solar radiation to pass through the Earth's atmosphere, but prevent most of the outgoing infrared radiation from the surface and lower atmosphere from escaping into outer space. This process occurs naturally and has kept the Earth's temperature about 60 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than it would otherwise be. Current life on Earth could not be sustained without the natural greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse Gas  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Gases produced from human activities that trap solar radiation and thus contribute to climate change and the destruction of the ozone layer. These include: • CO2 Carbon Dioxide • CH4 Methane • HFCs Hydrofluorocarbons (a class of several gasses) • N2O Dinitrogen Oxide • PFCs Perfluorocarbons (a class of several gasses) • SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride

Greenwash
The spread of misleading information by an organization in regards to environmental practices or environmental benefits of the entire organization, product and/or service.

Greenwash Scrub
Empowering those that use GreenPosting to review and rate posted businesses. The rating system is broken down into 4 fields with a handful of subcategories to help define that field. They are Environmental, Quality Control, Community, and Localness. The leaf rating associated with a posted businesses is derived from the Greenwash Scrub.

Grousers  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A selection of consumers defined by the Roper ASW Green Gauge Report as disinterested in "green" or environmental issues. They tend to view environmental issues as too big and complicated to address.

H

HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A type of plastic that is commonly used in milk and water jugs.

Herbalism  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
The practice of making or prescribing herbal remedies for medical conditions. Practitioners of herbalism may be licensed MDs, naturopaths, or osteopaths. They may also be unlicensed. Interested consumers should seek out knowledgeable, and preferably licensed, herbalists.

Holistic Management  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A term originally used to describe an approach to managing land resources that builds biodiversity, improves production, generates financial strength, and improves the quality of life for those who use it. Holistic Management addresses the farm, family, and community as an integrated whole, instead of as separate parts. Coined by Allan Savory, a biologist in Zimbabwe, the method can be applied to organizations, businesses, communities, or individuals in need of making decisions. In taking a whole-systems approach, decision makers need to first identify all of the stakeholders in relation to the decision, including both people and nature. Once the stakeholders are identified, a goal or statement of purpose is defined with the consideration of individual and group needs as well as nature’s current and future needs. The group then tests all future decisions and actions by considering whether or not they will help reach this goal. www.holisticmanagement.org

Homeopathy  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A system of therapy based on the concept that disease can be treated with drugs (in minute doses) thought capable of producing the same symptoms in healthy people as the disease itself.

Hybrid Automobiles 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Part electric, part internal combustion, hybrids represent a green step forward for the automobile. Better mileage, lower emissions, better performance, and lower fuel bills make hybrids a great deal for both people and planet

Hypnosis  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A part of healing from ancient times. The induction of trance states and the use of therapeutic suggestion were a central feature of the early Greek healing temples, and variations of these techniques were practiced throughout the ancient world

I

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A pest management strategy that includes using traps to monitor infestations, using better sanitation practices and beneficial insects to control the identified pests, and applying pesticides so that they pose the least possible hazard, and are used only as a last resort when other control methods have failed.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A pest management strategy that includes using traps to monitor infestations, using better sanitation practices and beneficial insects to control the identified pests, and applying pesticides so that they pose the least possible hazard, and are used only as a last resort when other control methods have failed.

ISO 14000  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The ISO 14000 series represents environmental management standards, created by the International Organization for Standardization, which certify products and companies that meet specific processes and practice criteria. This standard is applicable to any organization that wishes to: • implement, maintain and improve an environmental management system • assure itself of its conformance with its own stated environmental policy (those policy commitments of course must be made) • demonstrate conformance • ensure compliance with environmental laws and regulations • seek certification of its environmental management system by an external third party organization • make a self-determination of conformance Some of these criteria have recently been superceeded by the ISO 19011 criteria. http://www.iso14000-iso14001-environmental-management.com

ISO 19011  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The ISO 19011 series represents environmental management and auditing standards, created by the International Organization for Standardization, which certify products and companies that meet specific processes and practice criteria. These supercede many of the criteria initially developed under the ISO 14000 standards. ISO 19011

K

Keystone Species  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A species so critical to an ecosystem that its removal could potentially destroy the entire system. A good example of this are Blue Jays, which plant acorns that give rise to oak forests. Without Blue Jays, oak forests are not naturally replenished and without the forests, all other species in the ecosystem cannot survive. It is important to consider keystone species when making any decisions that could affect the natural environment. A small impact on keystone species could cause major disruption for the whole ecosystem.

Kyoto Protocol  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
An agreement developed by and for industrial nations in 1997 at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) in Kyoto, Japan, to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels by 2012. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 2005 without the US ratifying it. Currently, the EU expects to achieve the goals two years early, in 2010. Over 200 US cities have decided to meet the Kyoto Protocols on their own.

L

Lead Acetate  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Toxin found in shampoos, hair dyes, and facial cleansers. Studies show it is linked to possible human reproductive and developmental issues. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

LEED (Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design) Rating  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A registered system of rating existing and new buildings, interiors, and other components based on environmental effectiveness. The LEED checklist integrates over 60 different criteria and results in certification at 4 levels: Certified, Silver, Gold, and Platinum. More information: www.usgbc.org

M

Mad Cow Disease 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Common name for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), a cattle disease that causes the brain to waste away. It takes about 4-7 years for cattle to show symptoms ofthe disease after being exposed to it, but once symptoms become visible the cattle die within weeks. One way this disease is spread is by feeding the meat from infected cattle to other cattle (meat from infected sheep may also cause the disease). This was a common practice on factory farms until the 1980s and 1990s when it was outlawed in most countries because it was found to cause BSE. At that time, thousands of cattle believed to have been exposed to BSE were killed to prevent further spread of the disease. Consuming beef from infected cattle causes a brain-wasting disease called new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans.

Magnet Therapy  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
An alternative therapy in which magnetic fields are administered by application of magnets to certain parts of the body, by magnetic field-generating machines, or by magnetic mattresses or blankets. Magnet therapy has been promoted to diagnose and/or treat arthritis , cancer , circulatory disorders, diabetic neuropathy (nerve disease), fibromyalgia , HIV/AIDS, immune dysfunction, infection, inflammation, insomnia, multiple sclerosis , muscle pain, neuropathy, pain, rheumatoid arthritis , sciatica , stress and to increase energy and prolong life, There is no convincing evidence that magnet therapy is useful in any of these regards. Body magnets are contraindicated in people having radiology, an MRI or wearing a cardiac pacemaker . Also known as biomagnetic therapy or electromagnetic field therapy.

Massage  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
The manipulation of muscle and connective tissue to enhance the function of those tissues and promote relaxation and well-being. Therapeutic massage can ease tension and reduce pain. Massage can be a part of physical therapy or practiced on its own. It can also be highly effective for reducing the symptoms of arthritis, back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other disorders of the muscles and/or nervous system.

Material Safety Date Sheet (MSDS)  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
MSDS is a compilation of information on a given product’s chemicals, health and physical hazards, exposure limits, and necessary precautions for use.

Meditation  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A self-directed practice for relaxing the body and calming the mind. Most meditative techniques have come to the West from Eastern religious practices, particularly India, China, and Japan, but can be found in all cultures of the world. Until recently, the primary purpose of meditation has been religious, although its health benefits have long been recognized. It is now being further explored as a way of reducing stress on both mind and body.

Mercury  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Organic substance found in some eye drops and ointments that is a possible human carcinogen. Studies show it is linked to possible human reproductive and developmental issues. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

Methane 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A gas given off by animal waste. It can be used as fuel, but the process to turn it into fuel is very expensive, so this is not done very often. Methane is a greenhouse gas, which means that it contributes to global warming.

Mobile Meat Processing Unit 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A slaughterhouse in a trailer that can be moved from one farm to another in order to accommodate small farmers and ranchers. The units drastically reduce the stress animals endure from being transported long distances.

Molting / Forced molting 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Part of a hen's natural reproductive cycle. After laying eggs for about a year, a hen loses her feathers and rests for a few weeks as new feathers grow in. This is called molting, or a molt, and it usually happens at the beginning of winter. On factory farms, hens are subjected to forced molting, where farm operators cause this process to happen rapidly by depriving hens of food and water for several days and altering the schedule of light and darkness in the confinement building. This way, all the hens molt simultaneously and over a very short time period.

Monoculture 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Monoculture is the destruction of a diverse ecosystem and replacement with a single species or crop. This is common practice in modern agriculture, where large acreages of crops are grown for sale to other regions or countries. Monocultures deplete the soil, and fruits and vegetables become more susceptible to pests and disease than those grown in a diverse crop environment, thus requiring larger amounts of chemical sprays.

N

Naturopathy  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A system of therapy based on preventative care, and on the use of heat, water, light, air, and massage as primary therapies for disease. Some naturopaths use no medications, either pharmaceutical or herbal. Some recommend herbal remedies only. A few who are licensed to prescribe may recommend pharmaceuticals in those cases where they feel their use is warranted.

Negawatt  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The saving of a megawatt of power by reducing consumption or increasing efficiency.

Net-Zero Energy Home  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A home employing site-appropriate passive solar design, site-appropriate renewable energy products, and proven energy efficiency/conservation technologies and practices, resulting in an annual contribution to the electricity grid that is equal to or greater than the amount of power the home uses from the grid. Common sources of energy generation for the N-ZEH are PV panels and solar hot water, wind turbines, and geo-thermal heating and cooling systems. Ultimately, millions of N-ZEH’s may become a distributed source of clean energy feeding the grid, resulting in a reduced need for centralized electricity plants powered by coal, nuclear and natural gas.

NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A non-profit group or organization that is run neither by business or government created to realize particular social or economic pursuits, through research, activism, training, promotion, advocacy, lobbying, or community service.

Non-Profit And Not-For-Profit  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Two types of organizations that are not expected or allowed to make a profit, though many still generate revenues from activities. In return for not earning profits, these organizations are regulated differently and are tax-exempt. Non-profit organizations cannot distribute revenue to an individual or for-profit company. Any "earnings" gained in the pursuit of its goals are to be returned to the organization and used for these purposes. When non-profit organizations make "unrelated" income, they pay "unrelated business income tax" or UBIT on it. Not-for-profit organizations distribute any profit among their members, who pay tax on the earnings through income tax.

Nutrient Pollution 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Contamination of water by too many nutrients, which often come from fertilizer or waste runoff. In surface waters, this can cause overproduction of algae (this is called an algal bloom), which uses up all the oxygen in the water and suffocates fish and other marine life.

O

Open-Loop Recycling  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The conversion of material from one or more products into a new product, involving a change in the inherent properties of the material itself (often a degradation in quality). For example, recycling plastic bottles into plastic drainage pipes. Often called downcycling or reprocessing.

Organic Beer  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Made from certified-organic malted barley, hops, and yeast. These ingredients are grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.

Organic Food  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
The U.S. Department of Agriculture defines organic food as that which is produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future generations." Thus “organic” refers to a specific set of standards used throughout the entire process of food production. Food that is certified organic comes from farms that have been inspected and approved under the USDA’s guidelines (by a third-party agent). Organic certification prohibits the use of most conventional pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, bioengineering, and irradiation (also called ionizing radiation or “cold pasteurization”). Organic meat, eggs, poultry, and dairy come from animals not treated with antibiotics or growth hormones. Certified organic food is, by definition, free from genetically modified organisms (GMO’s). Also, any handling or processing of organic food must be done by certified companies.

Organic Spirits  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Made from organic ingredients such as grains or potatoes. Some spirits are made with some organic ingredients, but may not qualify for full organic certification.

Organic Wine  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Wine is labeled "organic" or "made with organic grapes" with the strict organic rules set by the USDA National Organic Program. In addition, the wine is produced and bottled in a certified-organic facility. Low levels of added sulfites are allowed in wine labeled "made with organic grapes" and no sulfited are allowed in wine labeled "organic" (with the USDA ORGANIC green logo). Because of U.S. regulations regarding sulfites, only domestic wines can be found labeled as Organic Wine.

Overharvest  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The act of removing more than the sustainable amount of a resource that would insure its renewal for future generations. Typically related to fishing practices, the term can be applied to timber or the harvest of any natural resource.

P

Passive Solar  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
The processes of using or capturing energy from the sun to heat water, or for other heating purposes.

Pastured or Pasture-Raised  2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Indicates the animal was raised on a pasture and that it ate grasses and food found in a pasture, rather than being fattened on grain in a feedlot or barn. Pasturing livestock and poultry is a traditional farming technique that allows animals to be raised in a humane, ecologically sustainable manner. This is basically the same as grass-fed, though the term pasture-raised indicates more clearly that the animal was raised outdoors on pasture. (See Grass-Fed)

Perchloroethylene (perc)
  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A toxic substance used in conventional dry cleaning. Perc for short, it’s a chlorinated solvent that accumulates in body fat and has been listed as a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.



Permaculture  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
The adoption of methods and practices from ecology, appropriate technology, and sustainable agriculture providing the techniques to establish productive environments to supply food, energy, shelter, and other material and non-material needs.

PET
(Polyethylene Terepthalate)  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A type of plastic used to make soft drink bottles and other kinds of food containers. PET is also used to make fabric.



Petroleum Distillates 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Toxin and possible human carcinogen found in some mascara, perfume, foundation, lipstick, and lip balm. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products. 



Photvoltaic (PV)
  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
The process of using technology to convert sunlight into electricity. Often referred to solar electric.

Pollution Offset  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The attempt to offset the results of pollution from some activity of process by improving the environment in an equal benefit. Carbon trading, for example, allows carbon polluters to offset the effect of excess carbon in the environment by trading credits with those whose activities reduce an equal amount of carbon. Pollution offsets can exist for any kind of polluting materials as long as an equal and direct benefit can be established.

Pollution Prevention  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Any activity to reduce or eliminate any number of pollution types or quantities from personal, corporate, or governmental activities. Also called source reduction, these activities seek to create more efficient procedures or practices that reduce pollution or use it in the manufacturing process of some other activity. Often, practices such as changes in manufacturing or other activities, redefined product, service, or corporate strategy, dematerialization, transmaterialization, or substitution of materials can eliminate less desirable practices (along with the pollution associated with these practices) without adversely effecting productivity or, in some cases, increasing efficiency or effectiveness.

Post-Consumer 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
A term used to describe material that is being reused/recycled after it has been in the consumer's hands (e.g., a newspaper going back to the paper mill to be recycled into new recycled content paper products). Material or product used by the consumer for its original purpose and then discarded.



Potassium Dichromate 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Toxic chemical used in pain and wound treatments. A known carcinogen, and studies show it can be an immune system and reproductive system hazard. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

Q

Qi Gong: ("chee-GUNG")  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A component of traditional Chinese medicine that combines movement, meditation, and regulation of breathing to enhance the flow of qi (an ancient term given to what is believed to be vital energy) in the body, improve blood circulation, and enhance immune function.

R

Recycle  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Recycling is the process of reclaiming materials from used products or materials from their manufacturing and using them in the manufacturing of new products. It is different from Reuse, where products are not destroyed and remanufactured but cleaned and repaired to be used again, also known as remanufacturing. Another strategy to use resources more efficiently includes reducing the use of materials needed for product and process manufacturing, also known as dematerialization. Many products are now marked with a variety of recycling symbols meant to help consumers and waste managers in separating recycled products and materials. Not all materials and products can be recycled, however. Those designed for disassembly or made from one material are the easiest. Even when used materials and products are recycled, often there is no economically viable market for these materials and they are either disposed of with other waste or stored in warehouses for future uses.

Recycled Content 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
The amount of pre- and post-consumer recovered material introduced as a feed stock in a material production process, usually expressed as a percentage (e.g., 30% post-consumer content).

Reduce  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
One of the most sustainable strategies is simply to reduce the amount of energy and materials we use and, thus, are required to be manufactured. This reduction has an exponential effect as it further reduces packaging, recycling, transportation, cleaning, disposal, and a host of other costs.

Reiki ("RAY-kee")  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A Japanese word representing Universal Life Energy. Reiki is based on the belief that when spiritual energy is channeled through a reiki practitioner, the patient's spirit is healed, which in turn heals the physical body.

Remanufacturing  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The process of cleaning and repairing used products and parts to be used again for replacements.

Renewable  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Any material or energy that can be replenished in full without loss or degradation in quality.

Reuse  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Often, the most sustainable option is to reuse materials and objects already manufactured, either for their original or new purposes, rather than recycle them into other products. This decreases further energy and materials use in recreating them into a new form.

Rotational Grazing 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
The practice of moving animals between two paddocks, so that each paddock undergoes a short grazing period followed by a longer rest period. The practice protects pastures from overgrazing and reduces soil erosion.

Runoff 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Water from precipitation or irrigation that flows over the ground and into bodies of water. It can contribute to soil erosion and carry harmful pollutants.

S

Salmonella 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A type of bacteria that causes food poisoning and is commonly found in meat and animal waste, particularly poultry.

Source Reduction 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
The process of reducing the amount and/or toxicity of an item before it is ever generated (e.g. buying an item with less packaging or using a non-toxic alternative to clean with).

Spent Hen 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A hen that is no longer able to function as a factory egg-producing machine -- usually about two years old. These hens, which frequently have broken bones and badly bruised bodies, are sold cheaply for use in frozen dinners or canned soups, or are discarded.

Sprouts  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A selection of consumers defined by the Roper ASW Green Gauge Report as consumers undecided about environmental issues when it comes to buying and using products and services. [They] often evaluate environmental issues one at a time, comparing each to their personal benefits or costs.

Sustainability  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This definition was created in 1987 at the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission). It is enshrined in the Swiss federal constitution. It is similar to the "seventh generation" philosophy of the Native American Iroquois Confederacy, mandating that chiefs always consider the effects of their actions on their descendants seven generations in the future. There are many ways to measure or define sustainability. As described in the book Natural Capitalism, in business, these should include the sustainable development and use of, at least, the following four types of capital: • Financial Capital • Manufacturing Capital • Natural Capital • Human Capital In addition, many organizations use the following criteria to assess sustainable products, services, and other activities: Social Criteria: • Socially desirable • Culturally acceptable • Psychologically nurturing Financial Criteria: • Economically sustainable • Technologically feasible • Operationally viable Environmental Criteria: • Environmentally Robust • Generationally Sensitive • Capable of continuous learning

Sustainable 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
A product can be considered sustainable if its production enables the resources from which it was made to continue to be available for future generations. A sustainable product can thus be created repeatedly without generating negative environmental effects, without causing waste products to accumulate as pollution, and without compromising the wellbeing of workers or communities. The drawback of the term ‘sustainable’ is that the term lacks a clear-cut, universally-accepted, enforceable definition - thus it can be interpreted in different ways. It is more of a philosophy or way of life than a label.

T

Take-Back  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A “producer responsibility” approach to facilitating reuse or recycling whereby consumers return used products back to the company that produced them. Laws mandating company “take back” programs attempt to create incentives for companies to incorporate reusability/recyclability considerations into their initial product design.

Therapeutic Touch  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A practice derived from an ancient technique called laying on of hands. It is based on the premise that it is the healing force of the therapist that affects the patient's recovery; healing is promoted when the body's energies are in balance; and, by passing their hands over the patient, healers can identify energy imbalances.

Thermohaline Conveyor 3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A global water circulation system driven by water temperature and salt-density that distributes water between the Earth’s oceans. Warmer water closer to the ocean's surface travels from the northern Pacific Ocean, south through the Indian Ocean (where it is joined by more warm water), around the southern tip of Africa, and up to the northern Atlantic Ocean. At this point, the water cools and sinks toward the bottom of the ocean and travels back via the same path. The thermohaline conveyor is repsonsibile for bringing warmer, more temperate climate to most of Europe and has a profound effect on global climate. In the past, when this system has slowed or stopped, the results were ice ages throughout Europe. Concern is rising that global climate change is again slowing this conveyor system and endangering ecosystems and economies in the EU. Also called thermohaline circulation

Thimerosol  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Toxin, immune system toxicant, and possible human carcinogen found in mascara, contact lenses solution, flu vaccines, and other beauty products. Studies show it is linked to possible human reproductive and developmental issues. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

Toluene  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Toxin found in some nail polish. Studies show that it is linked to possible human reproductive or developmental issues. Considered one of the 10 most unsafe substances found in beauty products.

Traditional Chinese Medicine  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
The current name for an ancient system of health care from China. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on a concept of balanced qi (pronounced "chee"), or vital energy, that is believed to flow throughout the body. Qi is proposed to regulate a person's spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical balance and to be influenced by the opposing forces of yin (negative energy) and yang (positive energy). Disease is proposed to result from the flow of qi being disrupted and yin and yang becoming imbalanced. Among the components of TCM are herbal and nutritional therapy, restorative physical exercises, meditation, acupuncture, and remedial massage.

True-Blue Greens  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A sector of the market defined by the Roper ASW Green Gauge Report as the most interested in "green" or environmental issues…they tend to be educated, have higher incomes, and influence other consumers.

U

Upcycle  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
A term coined by William McDonaugh and Michael Braungart. The process of converting an industrial nutrient (material) into something of similar or greater value, in its second life. Aluminum and glass, for example, can usually be upcycled into the same quality of aluminum and glass as the original products.

V

Virgin Product 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Term that refers to products that are made with 100 percent new raw materials and no recycled materials.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
Chemicals that evaporate readily at room temperature. Typically, they are industrial solvents often found in petroleum fuels, paints, paint thinners, and dry cleaning agents.

W

Waste Reduction  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The process of reducing waste material and energy in manufacturing, use, and disposal by techniques such as dematerialization, transmaterialization, recycling, sustainable design, closed-loop supply chains, etc.

Watershed 2Introduction to Sustainability: Sustainable Dictionary "sustainable table" Retrieved 4/11/08
Area of land that contributes runoff to a particular, common body of water. (To understand this concept better, you can find a map of the watershed you live in by going to the EPA web site.)

WEEE Recycling Directive  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
EU legislation that sets criteria for the collection, treatment, recycling and recovery of Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment. It makes producers (manufacturers, sellers and resellers of own-brand equipment, and importers and exporters) responsible for financing most of these activities. This directive requires the collection and treatment of any electrical or electronic equipment which is waste including all components, sub-assemblies and consumables, which are part of the product at the end-of-the products life or at the time of discarding. In addition, it requires producers to organize “take back supply chain” for customers to return items when their use is finished. Every producer must also provide information on re-use and treatment for new EEE within one year of placing it onto the market, in order to inform re-use centers, treatment and recycling facilities. Due to the global economy, this directive has become a global standard.

X

Xeriscaping 1Greenopia.com glossary Retrieved 4/11/08
An environmentally conscious form of landscaping that uses indigenous and drought-tolerant plants, drip irrigation systems, and mulch to conserve as much energy as possible.

Y

Yoga  4"Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Glossary of Terms." Retrieved 4/14/08
A way of life that includes ethical precepts, dietary prescriptions, and physical exercise. Its practitioners believe that their discipline has the capacity to alter mental and bodily responses normally thought to be far beyond a person's ability to modulate them. During the past 80 years, health professionals in India and the West have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of yoga. To date, thousands of research studies have been undertaken and have shown that with the practice of yogic meditation a person can, indeed, learn to control such physiologic parameters as blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory function, metabolic rate, skin resistance, brain waves, body temperature, and many other bodily functions.

Z

Zero Waste  3"The Dictionary of Sustainable Management." Presidio School of Management. Retrieved 4/18/08
The goal of developing products and services, managing their use and deployment, and creating recycling systems and markets in order to eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste and materials and conserve and recover all resources. Implementing zero waste eliminates all discharges to land, water, or air that may be a threat to planetary, human, animal or plant health. Many cities and states already have set zero-waste goals. For example, San Francisco and other cities have set a goal to create zero waste by 2020. More information: www.zerowaste.ca.gov


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